Friday, April 30, 2010

Paper watch: photodetector research at IBM

Two recent papers from IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center on photodetectors for optical communications at Nature and Nature Photonics:

"Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects"
Integration of optical communication circuits directly into high-performance microprocessor chips can enable extremely powerful computer systems1. A germanium photodetector that can be monolithically integrated with silicon transistor technology is viewed as a key element in connecting chip components with infrared optical signals. Such a device should have the capability to detect very-low-power optical signals at very high speed. Although germanium avalanche photodetectors (APD) using charge amplification close to avalanche breakdown can achieve high gain and thus detect low-power optical signals, they are universally considered to suffer from an intolerably high amplification noise characteristic of germanium. High gain with low excess noise has been demonstrated using a germanium layer only for detection of light signals, with amplification taking place in a separate silicon layer. However, the relatively thick semiconductor layers that are required in such structures limit APD speeds to about 10 GHz, and require excessively high bias voltages of around 25 V . Here we show how nanophotonic and nanoelectronic engineering aimed at shaping optical and electrical fields on the nanometre scale within a germanium amplification layer can overcome the otherwise intrinsically poor noise characteristics, achieving a dramatic reduction of amplification noise by over 70 per cent. By generating strongly non-uniform electric fields, the region of impact ionization in germanium is reduced to just 30 nm, allowing the device to benefit from the noise reduction effects that arise at these small distances. Furthermore, the smallness of the APDs means that a bias voltage of only 1.5 V is required to achieve an avalanche gain of over 10 dB with operational speeds exceeding 30 GHz. Monolithic integration of such a device into computer chips might enable applications beyond computer optical interconnects1—in telecommunications, secure quantum key distribution, and subthreshold ultralow-power transistors.

"Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications"
Although silicon has dominated solid-state electronics for more than four decades, a variety of other materials are used in photonic devices to expand the wavelength range of operation and improve performance. For example, gallium-nitride based materials enable light emission at blue and ultraviolet wavelengths, and high index contrast silicon-on-insulator facilitates ultradense photonic devices. Here, we report the first use of a photodetector based on graphene, a two-dimensional carbon material, in a 10 Gbit s−1 optical data link. In this interdigitated metal–graphene–metal photodetector, an asymmetric metallization scheme is adopted to break the mirror symmetry of the internal electric-field profile in conventional graphene field-effect transistor channels, allowing for efficient photodetection. A maximum external photoresponsivity of 6.1 mA W−1 is achieved at a wavelength of 1.55 µm. Owing to the unique band structure of graphene and extensive developments in graphene electronics and wafer-scale synthesis, graphene-based integrated electronic–photonic circuits with an operational wavelength range spanning 300 nm to 6 µm (and possibly beyond) can be expected in the future.

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